Earth Related Dates in the
Ukrainian Collectivization and the Soviet Ukrainian Famine
October 1, 1928
April - November, 1929
October 1, 1929
January 5, 1930
February 26, 1930
March 1, 1930
March 2, 1930
March 15, 1930
March 20, 1930
March 29, 1930
April 1, 4, 6, 1930.
3.4% Ukrainian farms, 3.8% land collectivized.
Dovzhenko writes and shoots principal photography for Earth.
8.6% farms, 8.9% land collectivized.
Release of Eisenstein’s Old and the New. For the next year Eisenstein, Tisse and Alexandrov travel across Europe and North America exhibiting and lecturing.
Dovzhenko cuts and finishes editing Earth.
New Party resolution: Collectivization to be speeded up by force. “Liquidation of Kulaks as a Class”.
Earth reviewed by Artistic Council of Ukrainfilm.
65 % Ukrainian farms, 70 % land collectivized. Forced Ukrainian ‘Kulak’ deportation to Siberia or Far East completed: 62,000 households (estim. 250,000 exiled).
Stalin’s Pravda “Dizzy from Success” speech and brief retreat from forced collectivization.
Forced collectivization ends. Rural populace voluntarily allowed to go back to individual landholding.
Earth reviewed by Association of Revolutionary Cinema Workers. (Denounced as kulak film in Moscow)
Earth denounced in Pravda.
Demyan Bedny’s three column attack on Earth published in Izvestia, “The Philosophers”.
April 8, 1930
April 8, 1930.
April 17, 1930.
July 1, 1930
July - October, 1930.
December 1, 1930.
April 1, 1931
May - July, 1933
November 16, 1933
June 1, 1934
October 1, 1935
Earth released in Kyiv.
Walter Duranty reviews Earth controversy for New York Times - “Moscow in Furor over Kulak Movie”.
Earth withdrawn from release in Ukraine and banned internally.
30.4 % farms, 39.7 land collectivized.
Dovzhenko travels with Solntseva demonstrating Earth and speaking at press conferences at various western capitals (Prague, Berlin, Hamburg, Paris, London, Amsterdam).
Herbert Marshall’s review of Earth appears in Close-Up 7 (1930).
Earth released in New York.
John Grierson publishes Earth review.
Harry Alan Potamkin writes review of Earth for American Communist paper New Masses.
Forced collectivization begins. Grain quotas raised 115 %. Ukrainian show trials (SVU) for bourgeois nationalism. Hrushevsky deported to Moscow. Mayakovsky’s suicide April 14, 1930.
55.4 % farms, 73.5% land collectivized.
Western ignored and Soviet covered-up famine/genocide continues into 1933.(5 million, conservative estimate, 15% of Ukrainian population killed. Dovzhenko’s father kicked out of his collective farm. Found homeless in Kyiv’s streets).
Suicides of Ukrainian leaders, Mykola Skrypnyk, commissar of education (Ukrainization) and Dovzhenko’s VAPLITE leader, Mykhola Khvylovy, in protest of Ukrainian genocide and cultural pogroms. 25,000 people dying/day (conservative est.)
U.S. Congress officially approves recognition of the Soviet Union.
Washington extends formal diplomatic recognition of Moscow.
Paul Rotha publishes chapter on Earth in Celluloid: The Film Today.
78 % farms, 90.6 % land collectivized.
91.3 % farms, 98% land collectivized.
Famine, Sofia Lepynska Boichuk, Late 20's
Malevich, Three Figures (Sickle, Cross and Coffin), Early 30's